Scotch Whiskey is a world-famous spirit, and it's reputation is well deserved!
You may enjoy a glass of Scotch, but you may not know what makes it so special - it's colorful history, or how it's manufactured.
But don't worry, this Scotch Whisky Guide is going to change all that.
So, if you're ready let's get started.........
At the risk of sounding obvious, Scotch Whiskey has to be thoroughly Scottish in order to have the honor of claiming that title!
And that means that it needs to be produced (distilled) and matured in Scotland, and nowhere else. The Scots are so proud, and protective of, their wonderful creation that they have international protection of the term 'Scotch'.
True Scotch Whisky reflects the land of it's birthplace, and the people who created it, in many ways.
It is traditionally made from barley and pure, clear water - both of which are in plentiful supply in Scotland.
It also needs a cool, damp or moist environment in order to mature properly, again there's plenty of cool weather and moisture in Scotland!
Scotland is a country which historically has proven it's strength and courage and fought fiercely for it's independence.
So perhaps it's no surprise that Scotch Whisky is a drink which could be described as bold, strong and fiery... although it can also be smooth, almost sweet, a drink of depth and contrasts - just like Scotland itself!
The famous Scottish poet Robert Burns recognized this when he wrote....
'Whisky and freedom gang thegither'
('Whisky and freedom go together')
In the UK, Scotch Whiskey is consistently a top export (accounts for just under a quarter of the UK's food and drink exports), adding millions of pounds sterling to the economy each year.
In the USA, the people's taste for 'Scottish Scotch' is growing each year, and the premium Scottish brands are becoming more and more popular.
In England, a cup of tea is the answer to all life's little (and not so little) problems. In Scotland, whisky plays the same role. Whether it's a birth, wedding, funeral - or a 'hot toddy' to help you get over a bad cold/flu, historically it's a 'wee dram' that the Scots rely on.
In the land of it's birth, Scotch Whiskey is spelled 'Scotch Whisky (without the 'e'), it is spelled the same way in Wales, Canada, Japan and many other countries.
However, the Irish spelling contains the 'e' and this spelling of the word whiskey is also seen in the USA. The difference seems to date back to the late 19th century when the Irish and Scottish distilleries wanted to show a distinction between their products.
As we live in the US, and this website is viewed by predominately American visitors, we chose to use 'Whiskey' in the page title and throughout the text.
However, you will also find the traditional Scottish spelling appears many times. This is by no means an ideal solution, but we felt it was the best way to help people searching online.
So, apologies in advance and please don't be offended if the word is spelled 'incorrectly' for your location!
No one knows for sure exactly when 'Scotch' was first distilled in Scotland, but there is still a of really interesting stuff that we do know!
Some historians think that Heather Ale (link to Heather page and ref), a popular drink brewed by the Picts and other very early inhabitants of Scotland, may have been a 'prelude' to Scottish whisky.
There's evidence to suggest that this type of ale was brewed as early as 2000 BC, but of course it was very different in taste, alcohol level etc.
Hundreds of years ago, the ancient Celts distilled an alcoholic drink whose Scottish Gaelic name was uisge beatha (latin name 'aqua vitae' meaning 'water of life').
Due to the pronunciation of this name, it gradually changed over time and with each invasion or influx of 'foreign, to 'usky' and then to 'whisky'. The spirit itself developed and changed too, eventually becoming the Scotch Whisky of today.
There's no actual written record of the distilling of Scotch prior to an entry in the 'Exchequer Rolls of Scotland' in 1494 which read...
'To Friar John Cor, by order of the King, to make aqua vitae VIII bolls of malt'
Although this early Scotch whiskey may not have been intended as a social drink - it was more likely used for medicinal purposes - it is the first recorded reference to the distilling of whisky in Scotland.
The number of whiskey distilleries in Scotland has risen and fallen since this first historical mention, with taxation in the 17th and 18th centuries causing a drop in 'legally established' distilleries and a rise in illicit production.
The different types of Scotch whisky, and how they're produced is actually pretty complicated.
There are 3 basic types of 'Scottish Scotch'
Single Malt Scotch Whisky
This type of Scotch Whiskey is made using only barley and water, at a single distillery.
Single Grain Scotch Whisky
This type is made from barley and water, but with the addition of one (or several) other types of grain. It's also produced at a single distillery and that is what the word 'single' refers to in it's name.
Blended Scotch Whisky
This third type of Scotch is produced by blending single malt Scotch Whiskey with single grain Scotch Whiskey. There can be just one single malt and one single grain, or several of each. The ratio of grain whiskies to malt whiskies within the blend is usually somewhere around 60:40
There are also other categories and sub-categories such as 'blended malt whisky', 'vatted malts' and 'blended grain whisky'.
The distilling process by is also very complex. Here's a brief explanation of the way Scotch whisky is manufactured...
In terms of distilleries, Scotland was historically divided up into four regions - The Lowlands, The Highlands, Islay, Campbeltown. The many small islands off the coast of Scotland are included in the Highland region.
A fifth region was added, known as 'Speyside'. This also used to be part of the Highland region, but due to the large number of distilleries there it is now recognized as an individual region.
Each region produces Scotch that may be different in taste, color and aroma. But there are also differences between Scotch Whiskies produced in the same region by different distilleries, or even the same distillery. There's literally something to suit every taste :)
Here's a quick look at these regions:
The Lowlands - Currently there are only 3 whisky distilleries still in operation here - Auchentoshan, Bladnoch and Glenkinchie. Scotch Whiskey from this region tends to be the lightest and sweetest.
The Highlands - Geographically a huge area, this region is home to more distilleries than any other. Not surprisngly, the whiskies produced here are quite diverse. There's no one-size-fits-all description, but in general Highland whisky is smooth, medium to full bodied and has a great aroma. Some of the most famous Scotch whisky distilleries are here, including Clynelish, Dalmore, Glenmorangie and Oban.Scottish Highlands and Whisky Day Tour
Speyside - This region also houses many world-famous whisky distilleries, in fact over half of Scotlands' malt whisky distilleries are in this area. They include Cragganmore, Dalwhinnie, Glenfiddich and Glenlivet. The whiskies distilled in Speyside are similar to those produced in the Highland region.Speyside Whisky and Loch Ness Tour
Islay - There are 8 distilleries in operation in the Islay region, including Bruichladdich, Bowmore, Laphroaig and Laguavulin. The Scotch produced here is quite distinctive, with a strong flavor imparted by the peat used in the drying process.Islay Whisky Adventure Tour
You can drink Scotch whiskey just as it is (aka 'neat'), or you can just add ice (ie 'on the rocks'), or water (use bottled spring water not tap water). Or perhaps ginger ale, coca-cola or whatever soft drink you prefer.
Dedicated scotch drinkers may insist that a single malt scotch should be drunk neat, with only a drop or two of water. However, blended scotch can be served over ice, or with more water and still be acceptable to 'connoisseurs'.
It's really impossible to pick the 'Best Scotch Whisky', as taste is a very individual thing, and there's such a huge variation of flavors. However, if you want the names of a few Scotch whiskies that are 'contenders', here are a couple of lists you may be interested in....
According to British newspaper 'The Independent' these are the top ten Scotch Whiskies...
Just to show you how subjective choosing a 'best scotch whiskey' can be, here are what forbes.com consider to be ten of the best...
Bowmore 1964, Bourbon Cask (Islay)
Clynelish 20 year old, 1983 (Highland)
Caol Ila, Old Malt Cask, 24 year old (Islay)
Bruichladdich XVII (Islay)
Cragganmore 29 year old (Speyside)
Macallan 12 year old (Speyside)
Dalwhinnie 29 year old (Highland)
Glenmorangie 15 year old (Highland)
Rosebank 1991 Signatory (Lowland)
Glenkinchie 10 year old (Lowland)
Well, hopefully you're still with us, and as you now know more about Scotch whiskey than most people you'll ever meet....
all you have to do is start tasting them. We hope you enjoy yourself :o)
Scottish Highlands and Whisky Day Tour
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Loch Lomond, Whisky, and Stirling Castle Tour Experience from Edinburgh
Day Tour to Loch Lomond Tour and Stirling Castle from Edinburgh, including a Whisky stop at Glengoyne Distillery. Castles, lochs and whisky, a perfect day out. tour details...
Islay Whisky Adventure Tour
This tour takes you away to Scottish island paradise of Islay. Stunning scenery, ancient history, traditional culture and 8 Scotland finest whisky distilleries. tour details...
Speyside Whisky and Loch Ness Tour
Around half the working distilleries in Scotland are in the Speyside Highlands, but you will discover more than just whisky as you journey with us to Loch Ness. tour details...
Loch Lomond, Whisky, and Stirling Castle Tour Experience from Glasgow
Loch Lomond Tour and Stirling Castle Day Tour from Edinburgh, with a Whisky stop at Glengoyne Distillery. Castles, lochs and whisky, perfect Scottish Experience tour details...
The World of Whisky Tour of Scotland
Tour the great whisky regions of Islay, Jura, Kintyre and Arran on this specialized world of whisky tour of Scotland. Including distillery visits and tastings.. tour details...
Tantallon Castle, North Berwick and Glenkinchie Distillery Tour from Edinburgh
This very relaxed day trip on the back roads of Mid and East Lothian, see five castles (visiting two) including Tantallon Castle, North Berwick and Glenkinchie. tour details...
Woodlands and Whisky One day Highland Perthshire Tour
Day tour from Edinburgh to Perthshire Highlands, including Pitlochry, Blair Castle, Edradour distillery, Aberfeldy, Dunkeld, Scotland private tour to highlands. tour details...
A Day Exploring the Mystery and Malt of the Lothians Tour
The tour begins with Edinburgh and a 1 hour walking tour of the Royal Mile, Edinburgh Castle, Holyrood Palace, then to Glenkinchie distillery, Rosslyn Chapel... tour details...